June 29, 2012
Updated: September 6, 2012 (scroll to bottom)
The evidence provided below demonstrates that Cape Wind technology has failed where it has been installed offshore United Kingdom.
Citizens are entitled to a reliable energy source, and Cape Wind is determined reliable by the MA Department of Public Utilities by their approval of two Power Purchase Agreements with National Grid and NStar.
However, Cape Wind was originally specified as GE 3.6 MW wind turbines (130) that GE "discontinued" after their modification of (7) land-based wind turbines for a pilot project GE deployed offshore Ireland, called Arklow, that failed.
Cape Wind has been issued a favorable decision by the Department of Interior Minerals Management Service, now called Bureau of Energy Management, (BOEM), despite a volume of testimony provided to MMS/BOEM, in writing, and offered in person to BOEM Program Director at Public Hearing, that Cape Wind, by the developer's specifications in the project Enviromental Impact Statement, (EIS), and in the Construction Operation Plan, (COP), is failing.
Cape Wind must be able to demonstrate technical and financial ability to construct their project in order to comply with the Final Outer Continental Shelf Rules' "Lease" Section which applies to them. Yet, to this date, Cape Wind lacks financing and a manufacturing source for their obsolete and failing offshore technology.
Consider that Cape Wind is under dual Congressional Investigations over Freedom of Information Act, (FOIA), FAA internal emails that provide evidence that Cape Wind would be dificult to deny politically. And, that Cape Wind was under technical and hardware-specific review by the Federal Aviation Administration and the US Coast Guard, as well as by the US Enviromental Protection Agency, and US Fish and Wildlife Service, along with Federallly Recognized Tribes and the National Parks Service, as well as by other other involved parties, yet Cape Wind was, "discontinued", based on the developer's accepted specifications, the "Project Action" and focus of the MMS 4,000 page EIS.
The below email was sent to the MA Attorney General and Office of Inspector General on 7/20/2012 Copied are the lead federal and state regulators, representatives of the public, Congressmen and Senators, members of the media and stakeholders.
July 20, 2012
RE: Cape Wind project failing offshore technology--update
To the Offices of MA Attorney General and Office of Inspector General:
One year ago, I provided information to those copied regarding the Cape Wind project's failing technology identified as "discontinued" (GE 3.6 MW "Project Action"- Cape Wind DEIS, the focus of 17 permit reviewing entities and 4,000 pages), "sinking", "shifting" and "corroding", (Siemens 3.6 MW Cape Wind Construction Operation Plan specs.).
Here is an update on the continuing technological failure that is Cape Wind deemed reliable by Mass Department of Public Utilities--
‘Foundations Of 1000 Offshore Wind Turbines Crumbling’
“The foundations of some 1000 offshore wind turbines are crumbling. Danish companies face law suits over the liability and the yet unknown bills for repairs. A large brawl in the wind industry is underway. Serious design flaws in the foundations of some 1000 offshore wind turbines are now leading to lawsuits against and financial losses of several Danish companies. However, there is no overview of the problem, its economic scale and who will have to foot the bill.” –Jakob Skouboe, Boerse, 4 June 2012″
http://borsen.dk/nyheder/avisen/artikel/11/24776/artikel.html?utm_source=A Word About Wind&utm_campaign=1c94b14d21-
AOL Energy 12/13/11
‘Vestas offshore wind president costs may kill industry’
“Offshore wind is a higher cost energy because we are where we are in the learning curve,” said Anders Søe-Jensen, president of the offshore division at Vestas. “We are at risk but we all have to commit to bringing down costs otherwise we’re going to kill our industry.”
Vestas Søe-Jensen: “It’s a bit like buying an old crappy car. It’s starts cheap, but spends most of the time in the workshop costing you a fortune, so you didn’t drive much, and your cost per driven mile is staggeringly high. It’s the same with the cost of energy when you look at capital expense and operating costs with overall production.”
'Scour's threat to Europe's offshore wind farms is sinking in'
A question mark hangs over the long-term stability of Europe’s shallow-water turbines, after research linked to the Horns Rev 1 wind farm found that high-powered currents were causing the stone “armour” around the base of monopile foundations to collapse.
“All the near-shore, shallow-water wind farms off Europe are exposed to similar scour and horseshoe vortex issues,” says Nielsen. “Certainly Egmond [in the Dutch North Sea] and, I believe, Arklow [off Ireland] have seen problems related to these things.”
Exposed from behind this layer of shielding stone, turbines could potentially be dangerously destabilised by the effect of scour— the wave- and tide-driven sediment that can eat away at the seabed around fixed structures.
A team from the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) carried out model tests designed to mirror the impact of offshore conditions on the three-layer cover of “scour protection” placed around the 80 turbines at Horns Rev 1, which, three years after installation, had sunk by as much as 1.5 metres.
Experiments in the current flume at the DTU testing facility in Lyngby established that “horseshoe vortices” — twisting flows created by a change in water pressure at the surface of the monopile — were working their way around the stones and carrying off soil from around the foundation, causing the stone armour to sink into the sea floor.
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HOT TOPICS IN SUPPORT STRUCTURE DESIGN
Wednesday, 30 November 2011, 16:00 - 17:30
Henrik Carstens, Ramboll, Denmark
Marc Seidel, REpower Systems AG, Germany
SLIP JOINT, SOLVING THE GROUT PROBLEM
Jan van der Tempel
Jan van der Tempel(1) F P Liakos Ariston(1)
(1) TU Delft, Delft, The Netherlands
Offshore wind turbine support structures are in most cases a monopile: a 4 - 6m diameter steel tubular structure supporting the turbine. The structure consists of a foundation pile hammered or drilled into the sea bed, a transition piece with all ladders, boat landings and cable guides and the turbine tower, bolted on top of the transition piece.
For the connection between foundation pile and transition piece grout is used. A special kind of no-shrink, high strength concrete to transfer the axial and bending loads from the upper structure to the foundation pile.
Grout has been used for many decades to connect foundation piles to the pile sleeves of jacket structures. However, the nature and dimensions of the present day monopiles for offshore wind are quite different. This means that design rules not necessarily can be scaled up.
Recent reports on "sinking turbines" have brought to light that indeed more is happening in the grouted connections of offshore wind turbines than initially anticipated.
This paper gives an overview of the design methodology and standards used for offshore wind turbine foundations, the assumption on which they are based and where it went wrong.
Furthermore, the paper introduces a new solution for the pile-transition piece connection without grout: the Slip-Joint. The Slip-Joint is a conical top section of the foundation pile supporting a similar cone of the bottom end of the transition piece. The connection has been used for onshore turbines. The paper describes installation and design methods and experience over nearly 20 years. Furthermore, all details for offshore application are examined to find the solution can work offshore without any difficulties taking away all grout headache.
Expert Risk Articles
Offshore wind farms – pioneering work on the high seas
A stormy day on the North Sea. A large ship gets into trouble. The high swells hurl it against the transformer platform of an offshore wind farm, sinking it. Power from the wind farm to the mainland is cut off for months. A worst case scenario. Read more about the risks and opportunities involved in offshore wind power.
Download PDF 616.45 KB
A total loss with far-reaching consequences: The electricity can no longer be transmitted, and the wind energy production must be shut down. Perhaps for a period of months. After all, it can take an extensive amount of time to erect a new platform on the high seas: Elaborate advance work must be done to schedule the use of costly special ships and equipment. The high-seas operation may be delayed over and over again as a result of bad weather. Added to the high production costs of a new offshore platform are the financial losses resulting from the extended halt of electricity production. “When an entire platform sinks into the sea, we face a classic worst case scenario. In such cases, we are talking about potential property losses of € 50 million to € 60 million as well as a nine-digit loss of income,” says Gerhard Müller, Senior Risk Consultant at Allianz Global Corporate & Specialty (AGCS). Gerhard Müller knows what he is talking about: Every day he works on risk management in the area of wind power stations. The market for these systems is currently experiencing a boom.
7/29/12 CUT CONTENT THAT WAS SENT TO MASS AG AND OIG STAKEHOLDERS, RESUMING-
'Cape Wind’s monopole manufacturing job might go to an overseas contractor after all'
2012 July 12
When Cape Wind Associates signed a letter of intent to buy the foundations for its offshore turbines from a Middleboro company, it offered hope that the controversial wind farm would generate good-paying local manufacturing jobs.
But now it’s possible that those monopoles – the hollow steel foundations for the turbine towers that would be driven into the seabed – might not be made here after all.
The actual turbines are expected to be built by Siemens in Europe. But Gov. Deval Patrick hailed the agreement between Cape Wind and Mass Tank Sales Corp. in October 2010 to build the monopoles as proof that Cape Wind could generate manufacturing jobs here in Massachusetts. The Patrick administration said the deal could create anywhere from 100 to 300-plus local jobs. Patrick summed it up this way: “This is what our clean energy future is all about.”
Not so fast. Cape Wind spokesman Mark Rodgers told me last week that Boston-based Cape Wind is still in talks with potential vendors to build the monopoles and no decision has been made. Cape Wind just started studying the Nantucket Sound seabed where the project would be built to help design the giant poles that would hold the turbines.
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Technology Challenges for
Offshore Wind Power
Prof.dr. Gerard.J.W. van Bussel
Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands
KIVI NIRIA jaarcongres 2010, Arnhem 6 oktober 2010.
Offshore wind energy needs a different design and a
different Operational & Maintenance approach
• New access systems
• Improved logistics (installation and O&M)
• Big windturbines
• Lean design (not yet implemented)
• Improved reliability
• Smart maintenance systems (re-configuration)
• Windturbines as an element in integral (~500 MW)
wind power plant design
Northboro, MA 01532
My email notification sent one year earlier to the Mass Attorney General and Office of Inspector General and parties copied in the above correspondence:
July 26, 2011
RE: Cape Wind
To the Offices of the Massachusetts Office Attorney General and Massachusetts Inspector General:
On the basis that Cape Wind is inconsistent with citizens' rights to a reliable source of energy defined in applicable mandates at the state and federal levels, I urgently request that the offshore Cape Wind project be halted from going forward as ongoing news reports demonstrate that offfshore wind energy is presently not a reliable source of energy. As the Office of Attorney General is charged with the protection of ratepayers, and as the Office of the Inspector General is charged with protection of taxpayers, this communication is respectfully directed to you with supporting evidence. Most Respectfully, Barbara Durkin 48 Moore Lane Northboro, MA 01532 Telephone: (508) 612-4133 The evidence:
Offshore wind drivetrains account for windturbines out of commission 39%:
Windturbine Drivetrains – Reliability and Serviceability
July 25th, 2011
by CleanTechies Guest Author
Offshore wind power is undergoing intense growth in order to meet the European energy targets laid out for 2020. Research and development is being carried out into all aspects of the industry as it attempts to emerge as the main source of renewable energy throughout Europe.
An integral component of a wind turbine, the drivetrain is continually evolving as new concepts and designs are explored. As larger turbines are developed, and more wind farms are installed in deeper water, the service and maintenance of each component must also be considered.
The design of drivetrains is moving towards direct drive technology, and new initiatives are also being developed in hydraulic and hydrodynamic technology. All of the new concepts and designs have reliability as a central aim in development, as drivetrain failure is a big contributor to the time a wind turbine spends out of commission.
Operation and Development
Planned maintenance at sea is a much more complicated routine than on land, and unexpected service visits are highly unwelcome. A wind turbine drivetrain may have a yearly maintenance routine consisting of generator brush inspections, gearbox oil and filter changes, LSS bearing grease refill and container removal. The extra overheads of a boat, a crew, and sea trained technicians can easily amount to several thousand pounds; and the weather can delay schedule and increase the costs.
According to data gathered from existing offshore wind farms, drivetrain, generator, and gearbox failures account for around 14% of all down time for offshore turbines.
Due to the complexity of repairs, however, they account for 39% of the time a turbine is out of commission per year. Typical failures include HSS generator and bearing damage, coupling degradation and internal gearbox component failures.
There are several causes associated with drivetrain failure, some specific to the offshore environment. Wind speed can increase considerably even when only a short distance from the shore; while this improves the potential for energy production, it significantly increases the stress and pressure placed on components and can cause fatigue damage far quicker than in onshore applications. Turbulence is also greatly increased at sea, and although designers plan the layout of wind farms to avoid it, turbines can still be subject to downstream turbulence from other turbines in the grid.
Direct drive technology is being developed to eliminate the gearbox from the drivetrain assembly altogether. While Hybrid technology is being developed to combine very simple and reliable gearboxes with direct drive systems. These are being designed with maintenance fully in mind, and monitoring systems are being developed which can highlight weaknesses before they become failures to proactively prevent down time.."
[cut] THIS LETTER IS EDITED on July 29, 2012 to exclude text provided to MA Attorney General and Oiffice of Inspector General and parties copied.
Wind turbine drivetrains as a concept, and at component level are undergoing rapid development.
As one of the most significant contributing factors to the down time for wind turbines each year, the drivetrain is being revolutionized; along with the wind energy industry as a whole. It is unclear at this stage which technology will prove most suitable for mass production in the long term, so planning an operation and maintenance routine is a fluid process that must evolve with the design of each new system. As wind farms venture further out to sea in search of higher winds, so the turbines will increase in size, and may even exceed 10MW. The drivetrain solutions to suit that next generation of wind turbines will require their own custom maintenance plans.
Thousands of wind turbines will need to be installed over the next ten years if European energy targets for 2020 are to be met. This increase in volume of maintenance will change the landscape of the operation and maintenance sector of the wind energy industry. The cost of servicing is already at a very high level, because it requires specialist equipment, highly trained technicians and is reliant upon weather conditions.
Better reliability of the components within the drivetrain and longer service intervals built into design, can reduce the frequency of visits and cost of maintenance. Computer monitoring systems should also be utilized to relay detailed information back to the control center, but also used interactively to diagnose and repair faults. Automated maintenance, such as filter changes, can be implemented into design to make the turbine as ‘self sufficient’ as possible.
The next round of development across Europe will see several wind farm installations, and much of the new technology being developed will be utilized to make this generation of wind turbines more economic and efficient; some of the innovations will be on ‘trail’ under very real conditions. To minimize the cost surrounding breakdowns and repairs due to unreliable components, strategies to improve the reliability and serviceability of drivetrain systems should be implemented, and should be seen as a vital part of the design process.
Article by IQPC, a leading organizer of about 2,000 worldwide conferences, seminars, and related learning programs every year. The company is organizing the 2nd Drivetrain Concepts for Wind Turbines from 17 – 19 October, 2011 at the Swissôtel Bremen, Germany. Free whitepapers, articles and podcasts on drivetrains are available on the website.
Cape Wind IS as described in the project COP is 130 Siemen’s 3.6 MW wind turbines. Cape Wind was previously described (Project Action) in the Cape Wind DEIS as GE 3.6 MW wind turbines. Thusly, Cape Wind represents an unreliable energy source “discontinued”, “sinking”, “shifting” and “corroding” wind turbines by GE AND Siemens.
General Electric GE:
"GE Wind Energy Europe Managing Director Rainer Broring states the 3.6 MW GE 3.6l has been shelved for the moment, "GE's initial plan to install a prototype this year will therefore not materialise yet..."
"GE Wind, the subsidiary of the American energy giant General Electric, has left the risky business at sea altogether. Although seven 3.6-MW turbines have operated since 2003 ten kilometres off the Irish port of Arklow, the more secure business is on shore, says a spokesman of the company."
GE 3.6 MW wind turbine is "discontinued": (page 4):
GE 3.6 MW wind turbines "discontinued" status page 15 under "Offshore Wind Turbine Suppliers":
GE 3.6 MW offshore wind turbine status:
"General Electric 3.6sl (discontinued). Capacity 3.6 MW, rotor diameter 111 m. Hub height 75 m (from Cape Wind design specs). Seven 3.6s units producing power offshore at Arklow Bank since June 2004. See product brochure for GE 3.6sl. Based on experience at Arklow, GE had a set of engineering modifications to make for serial production of an offshore machine, but the company has to date decided not to compete in this market."
Cape Wind spec'd turbines, newly installed, are sinking, shifting and corroding. Yet, citizens are entitled to "reliable" energy under M.G.L. and the Energy Policy Act of 2005.
Recharge: 8/13/10 Siemens hires vessel to tackle turbine corrosion
The 3.6MW turbines being assembled in Siemens' factory at Brande, Denmark, before being shipped to Burbo Bank
Siemens Wind Power has discovered significant problems with the corrosion protection of pitch bearings in its 3.6MW offshore turbines, and has contracted the MPI Resolution jack-up vessel to carry out a major maintenance campaign, Recharge has learned.
- Siemens buys 49% A2SEA stake to deepen offshore ties
- Siemens receives offshore turbine order for EnBW Baltic 2
- Siemens launches new 3MW direct-drive model
The company is carrying out preventative maintenance on all its 3.6MW turbines with similar pitch bearings of the same type and age group.
The repairs will involve the temporary removal of blades from all the turbines installed at the 90MW Burbo Bank offshore wind farm, off the northwestern coast of England, with the work done by the jack-up vessel.
Blade removal will not be required for other offshore turbines with slightly different design features.
Siemens says the corrosion protection of the pitch bearings for new turbines has been addressed from the start of this year.
The German manufacturer has contracted the Resolution for several months, according to MPI. Until now, the vessel has been used almost entirely for installing offshore wind farms rather than for maintenance operations.
Siemens says the vessel will be carrying out works at the UK’s Lynn and Inner Dowsing, Gunfleet Sands, Burbo Banks and Rhyl Flats wind farms. The campaign includes scheduled maintenance, some upgrades and the replacement of components.
The ship is likely to cost about £100,000 ($155,000) per day plus fuel to charter.
EDITED CUT what has been provided to regulators and stakeholders in this communication-resuming content-
The incident is the latest in a number of technical teething problems for the nascent offshore wind industry. Earlier this year, Recharge revealed foundation faults affecting hundreds of offshore turbines.
Repairs to correct a weakness in the transition piece structure that connects the tower to its monopile foundation are likely to be carried out at all wind farms with monopile turbines.
Transition piece structures were found not to be solid enough to withstand the stresses of harsh offshore conditions, and had moved a few centimetres.
Published: Friday, August 13 2010
"Everybody in the industry has this problem so all of us are interested in solving it," a spokesman for Dong Energy said. "This shows this is a young industry and there are experiences to learn from."
Context of this first important article regarding "Hundred of offshore wind farms are being checked after a construction fault was discovered in one of Europe-wide industry standards." Towers are shifting several centimeters under the impact of harsh offshore conditions.
The United States "first" "America's largest" 130 WTG offshore Cape Wind, in its 9th year of permit review, has announced it will install Siemens 3.6 MW wind turbines.
Cape Wind spec'd Siemens 3.6 MW monopile (also called monopole) (foundations) are installed at the newly commissioned UK offshore Gunfleet Sands AND ARE EFFECTED according to this news report.
"Dong Energy has discovered the fault on three of its wind farms: at Dogger Bank off the coast of Liverpool, at the newly-commissioned Gunfleet Sands, and at the massive Horns Rev 2 facility off Denmark. A total of 164 turbines are affected, the company reports."
Fresh blow for wind farms as possible flaw is scrutinised
Industry investigates design error as offshore turbines hit by 'conditions'
By Sarah Arnott
Monday, 12 April 2010
Hundreds of offshore wind farms are being checked for a construction fault after a flaw was discovered in one of the Europe-wide industry standards.
The problem that has emerged is over the turbines' "monopile" foundations. The issue is centred on the grouting in the transition piece linking the turbine to its foundation, and the towers that are affected have shifted several centimetres under the impact of harsh offshore conditions.
The fault is not associated with a particular turbine model or manufacturer. Rather, it is an error in the generic design schematics signed off by the DNV, the Norwegian accreditation body, so the problem could show up in any turbine with a monopile foundation structure.
The industry is keen to play down the significance of the problem, stressing that the fault can be fixed and that there are no safety or performance implications. Even if every one of Britain's 336 offshore turbines were affected, the total cost of fixing the glitches would be "just" £50m, a fraction of the total cost of the installations, according to Charles Anglin, a director at RenewableUK, an industry group. But until all the checks have been completed, it is not possible to reliably estimate the impact.
"The problem is it will take a while to quantify the scale of the issue, "Mr Anglin said. "It is a concern and the industry is acting on it, but this is not something which is going to put anyone at risk or reduce output," he added.
The grout troubles first showed up last October at a wind farm at Egmond aan Zee in the Netherlands owned by Shell and Vattenfall.
Since then a task force of the big players in the offshore wind industry – including Centrica, E.ON and Dong Energy – has been working on the most effective solution to correct the monopile issue.
"Everybody in the industry has this problem so all of us are interested in solving it," a spokesman for Dong Energy said. "This shows this is a young industry and there are experiences to learn from."
EDITED CUT what has been provided to regulators and stakeholders in this communication-resuming content_
From Times Online
April 14, 2010
Sinking turbines blow ill wind across offshore energy sector
Hundreds of offshore wind turbines could be suffering from a design flaw that makes them sink into the sea.
Energy company engineers are urgently investigating the extent to which their offshore wind farms are affected, after flaws were discovered on a Dutch wind farm last autumn.
The problem could cost £50 million, said Renewables UK, the industry body that represents wind farm developers. It says that almost all of the 336 offshore turbines that have been erected could be affected as these were built to European standards now in question.
The problem arises in the concrete used to fix the turbine to its steel foundation. Shell found that some of the turbines at Egmond aan Zee, its Dutch wind farm, had moved a few centimetres. Centrica, owner of British Gas, and Dong Energy, the Danish wind group, admitted potential problems with some of their UK farms, but added that there was no safety or operational issue.
Peter Madigan, head of offshore renewables for Renewables UK, said: “A fault has been identified and has been shared with the industry, which has moved to see if there is a larger problem.” If repairs are necessary, energy companies will do them one turbine at a time to keep energy losses down.
Dong Energy said that three of its offshore wind farms were affected, including Gunfleet Sands, which has 30 turbines off the Essex coast, and Burbo Bank, which has 25 turbines in Liverpool Bay. Centrica said that it was investigating its Lynn and Inner Dowsing wind farm in the North Sea but that its Barrow offshore farm was not affected. However, the industry must revise its design standards before the next round of wind farm construction.
EDITED CUT what has been provided to regulators and stakeholders in this communication-
Siemens forced to repair coroding bearings on 3.6MW offshore turbines
James Quilter, Windpower Monthly, 17 August 2010, 2:22pm
OFFSHORE: Siemens is carrying out essential maintenance work on four offshore wind farms, including the recently opened Gunfleet Sands, after it was discovered the turbines' bearings were corroding.
Siemens 3.6MW offshore turbine
The four wind farms all use Siemens’ 3.6MW turbines. In addition to Dong Energy’s Gunfleet Sands, the affected developments are: Burbo Bank (Dong), Rhyl Flats (RWE) and Lynn and Inner Dowsing (Centrica). Gunfleet Sands was only brought online last month.
There are 181 turbines across all four wind farms.
A Siemens spokeswoman said that during routine maintenance it had discovered the"protection" had failed for the hub bearings.
Work to remedy the problem will take place over the coming weeks. In the meantime, Siemens said, all of the wind farms will continue to operate as normal.
Siemens was unable to confirm whether it would be seeking damages from the respective suppliers. The work will be funded by Siemens, despite the company needing to hire a 7000-ton vessel to carry it out.
The Siemens 3.6MW wind turbine has been described by some wind developers as the ‘workhorse’ of offshore. Recently it was picked as the turbine of choice for Cape Wind’s 420MW development in Nantucket Bay. [end]
09/04/2012 11:34 AM
Germany's Offshore Fiasco
North Sea Wind Offensive Plagued by Problems
By Matthias Schulz
Germany wants to pepper its northern seas with offshore wind turbines as part of its ambitious energy revolution. But strict laws, technology problems and multiple delays are turning the massive enterprise into an expensive fiasco. Investors and the public are losing patience.
In his 1957 work "Book of Imaginary Beings," Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges describes Zaratan, an ocean turtle that was so large that she served as an artificial island. Forests grew on her shell.
The managers of the British offshore firm Seajacks have developed such an affinity for the monster that they named their latest creation after the mythical being. Their Zaratan looks like a giant barge. It has a huge crane and four hydraulic legs, each of them 85 meters (280 feet) long. The legs allow it to lift itself out of the water like an insect.
The vehicle is an "installation vessel," a tool of the offshore wind-power industry that does only one thing: It installs offshore wind turbines that that are sometimes taller than 150 meters.
On a recent Saturday, the ship was waiting at the wharf in the northern German port town of Cuxhaven to take four "monopiles," each weighing 750 metric tons (1.64 million pounds), on board. Monopiles are 70-meter steel masts that serve as foundations for the offshore wind turbines.
The vessel, operated by the firm WindMW, was set to drive the first of these monumental poles 40 meters into the seabed at a site 23 kilometers (14 miles) north of the North Sea island of Helgoland, heralding the beginning of a sea change in German power generation.
The hammers on the installation vessel will generate noise at levels of 160 decibels. Zaratan will hammer 80 monopiles into the sand in the next few months. After that, the Zaratan and its sister ship, the Leviathan, will install the giant rotors on the turbines.
Since harbor porpoises are sensitive to noise while raising their young in the summer, all of this has to happen in the fall and winter, under overcast skies and in heavy seas.
It will also cost a lot of money: at least €1.2 billion ($1.5 billion). [cut, continue reading]
Translated from the German by Christopher Sultan